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Ethiopia

Africa

To which language should you translate to localize in Ethiopia?

Introduction


Language

Official language
Amharic 29.3%

Actual languages

Oromo 33.8%, Somali 6.25%, Tigrinya 5.86%, Sidamo 4.04, Wellayatta 2.21, Gurage 2.01, Afar 1.74, Haddiya 1.70, Gamo 1.45, other 13.09.

T-index 0.034%

T-Index ranks countries according to their potential for online sales.

English
Low proficiency (EF) – 63rd of 112 countries/regions in the world- 6/21 position in Africa.

Demography

Capitals: Addis Ababa
Currency: Ethiopian birr
Population: 114,96 m
Population density: 102/km2

Economy

GDP: 107,645,054.31 billion USD (2020)
GDP per capita: 1 066.2 USD‎(2020)
Purchasing Power: 14.76(2014)
Exports: $3.11B billion USD (2020)

Statistics

Unemployment rate2.08% (2020)
Literacy
39% (2018)
Internet users19% penetration, 21.14 million

By 2025 more than 50% of SubSaharan Africa will have a mobile connection, of which 65% will have a smartphone. This will result in more than 475 million mobile internet users; the top three markets for smartphone users are projected to be Nigeria, South Africa, and Kenya.

Conventions

Numbering system
Ethiopic numerals.

Date format: yyyy – mm – dd / dd – mm – yyyy
Time: 12h time system
Country code: 002251


Language data sources: Worldatlas/Britannica//EF/Wikipedia; Demography data sources: IMF/Worldometers; Conventions data source: Wikipedia; Economy data sources: WTO/OEC/CIA/Esomar/Datareportal; Statistics data sources: Datareportal/WorldBank/UN/UNESCO/CEIC/IMF/Culturalatlas/Commisceoglobal


Facts and data


Economy

Imports
8.95 billion USD (2020).  Coffee ($837M), Other Oily Seeds ($347M), Gold ($256M), Cut Flowers ($238M), and Zinc Ore ($199M), exporting mostly to China ($518M), United States ($484M), United Arab Emirates ($251M), Saudi Arabia ($197M), and South Korea ($159M).

Financial inclusion factors (over 15 years of  age)
• 35% have an account with a financial institution
• 0.3% have a credit card
• 0.3% have a mobile money account
• 0.6% make online purchases

Ease of doing business
Ease of conducting business is below average (rated 48 out of 100). Ranked 33rd out of 53 African countries. Ranked 159th out of 190 countries worldwide (2019, World Bank)

Exports
3.11 billion USD (2019).  Planes, Helicopters, and/or Spacecraft($717M), Gas Turbines ($608M), Packaged Medicaments ($402M), Electric Filament ($266M), and Cars ($225M), importing mostly from China ($2.37B), India ($828M), United Arab Emirates ($788M), France ($787M), and United Kingdom ($622M).

Main local online stores
Jumia (by far the leading online marketplace in the country), Qefira.com, Sheger.net, ShebaShopping and Delala

Economic freedom
‘‘Mostly not free’ (rated 58.3 out of 100). Ranked 12th out of 52 African countries. Ranked 102nd out of 186 countries worldwide (2019, Heritage Foundation and Wall Street Journal).

Global Innovation Index

Ranked 23rd out of 27 Sub-Sahara African countries, 126th out of 132 worldwide.

The Global Innovation Index captures the innovation
ecosystem performance of 132 economies and tracks the most recent global innovation trends.


conomy data sources: WTO/OEC/CIA/Esomar/Datareportal


Service Imports (2018)

Source: OEC

Service Exports (2018)

Source: OEC


Most complex product by PCI

Product Complexity Index measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters

Source: OEC


Most Specialized Products by RCA Index

Specialisation is measured using Revealed Comparative Advantage, an index that takes the ratio between Ethiopia observed and expected exports in each product

Source: OEC


Export Opportunities by Relatedness

Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product, the barchart show only products that Ethiopia is not specialized in

Source: OEC


Media

Media language English, Amaric.

Information channels
Ethiopia’s media looked set for profound change under reforms championed by Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, who took office in early 2018. Imprisoned journalists were freed and exiled pro-opposition media and journalists began to return home. The government unblocked hundreds of mainly opposition websites. Before the change of government, Ethiopia was repeatedly ranked among the worst countries in the world for media freedom. Anti-terrorism laws criminalised reporting of the activities of banned opposition groups and in 2016 the government announced strict controls over the media amid a state of emergency over anti-government protests. The rules outlawed watching or listening to outlets belonging to what the government called “terrorist organisations”, such as the Amsterdam-based opposition ESAT TV and US-based OMN. Radio is an important medium, reaching rural areas where most Ethiopians live. Although the state controls most broadcasting outlets, there is a handful of private TV and radio stations. Press circulation is largely confined to the literate urban elite. Poor infrastructure and a government monopoly in the ICT sector make online services prohibitively expensive for many Ethiopians.

The press

Addis Zemen – state-owned daily
Ethiopian Herald – state-owned English-language daily
The Daily Monitor – private, English-language
Addis Admass
– private, Amharic-language weekly
The Reporter
– private, English-language web pages
Capital
– English-language, business weekly
Addis Fortune
– English-language business weekly

Television

Ethiopian Television (ETV) – state-owned
Fana TV – private
Walta TV – private
ESAT – opposition satellite station s

Radio

Radio Ethiopia – state-owned, operates National Service and regional stations
Voice of Tigray Revolution – Tigray Regional State government radio
Radio Fana – founded in 1994 by ruling party
Sheger FM – private, Addis Ababa
Zami Radio – private, Addis Ababa

News agency

Walta Information Centre (WIC) – privately-owned, pro-government
Ethiopian News Agency (ENA) – state-owned


Media data source: BBC


Internet Data

Internet users
19% penetration, 21.14 million

Share of web traffic by device
56.7% mobile phones, 42.4% computers (laptops and desktops), 0.9% tablet devices

Average speed of mobile Internet connection
17.57 Mbps

Average speed of fixed Internet connection
13.45 Mbps

Mobile connection as a percentage of total population
41%

Percentage of mobile connections that are broadband (3G-5G)
74%

Most popular web search engines
Google (96.53%), Bing (2.94%), Yahoo (1.91%), DuckduckGo (0.23%), Yandex Ru (0.15%), Baidu (0.09%)

Most used social media
Facebook (60.76%), Pinterest (15.4%), Twitter (9.56%), YouTube (8.87%), Instagram (4.84%),  Tumbrl (0.28%)


Internet data sources: Datareportal/Statcounter


Social statistics

Life expectancy
66.71 yrs (2020)

Unemployment
2.08% (2020)

Healthcare Expenditure
8.8% of GDP (2018)

Literacy
39% (2018)

Average age of the population
19.5 yrs (2020)

Cultural Curiosities

Ethnicity
Ethiopia is a multi-ethnic society. The present structure of the government – a federation of ethnic based states – has created more tension. It is public knowledge that those who belong to the ruling ethnic group have better access to services and can get things done or decisions made in a relatively shorter time than others.

Gender and religion have very limited influence in the workplace. On the other hand, ethnicity could affect the work environment, in particular, when it is used as means of associating with a manager or supervisor. This could limit interaction and openness among co-workers and isolates those who belong to other ethnic groups. Ethnicity is causing a significant problem in the present-day Ethiopia and it is being used as a means of gaining power and privileges.

Cultural Curiosities

Ethiopia is home to over 80 different ethnicities. Despite this ethnic and religious diversity, however, a strong feeling of patriotism and pride unites the country’s citizens.

When visiting an Ethiopian household, it is considered impolite to decline the offer of food, as in many cultures. It is also tradition that guests be fed the tastiest part of a meal by hand. This is called “Gursha” and is done to honor guests. 

As mentioned previously, Ethiopians use a different numerical system, so be prepared when discussing numbers or presenting statistics to locals. 

Another difference is the calendar: the Ethiopian year starts on September 11th of the Gregorian calendar.


Gender
Ethiopian women are fully engaged in the production and distribution of goods and services of the economy but the majority of them are not fully compensated for their contribution to the economic development and welfare of society. Even in Addis Ababa and among the well-educated, liberal members of the society, men’s opinions are valued more than those of women. In the workplace, Ethiopian women are paid an equal amount for equal work, experience and education but when it comes to promotion to a higher position, men seem to be favoured. Women are seen as soft and delicate and are not perceived as being capable of making tough decisions and undertaking hazardous duties.

Religion
Ethiopia is a multi-religious country with the domination of the two religions: Ethiopian Orthodox Church and Islam. These two religions account for 95% of the population. So far, there have been no major religious conflicts within major cities, there is evidence of some incidents associated with orthodox thinking and ultra-right tendencies influenced by external forces in certain areas.

Class
It is no longer accurate to say that class exists in Ethiopian society and more so after the fall of the land tenure system and the 1974 Ethiopian revolution. However, Ethiopian society is very hierarchical and wealth does brings respect and recognition. The role of community leaders and elders, in the urban areas, has diminished but is still very relevant in rural areas.


Social statistics sources: WorldBank/UN/UNESCO/CEIC/IMF


The Data Factbook is a work in progress project. Our community is helping us to fill it up always with new and updated data. Your contribution is precious. If you want to help us, please write your advices at imminent@translated.com


Languages research


Languages spoken in Ethiopia


The geographical distribution of languages that you will find in the maps published in this section is a work in progress. Our community is helping us to fill it up with always new and updated data. Your contribution is precious. If you want to help us, please write to imminent.factbook@translated.com



Photo credit: Yohannes Minas, Unsplash