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Ethiopia

Africa

To which language should you translate to localize in Ethiopia?

What we know from our community

“Located in the Horn of Africa, Ethiopia is a nation characterized by its rich linguistic and cultural diversity. With over 80 languages spoken, Ethiopia is one of the most linguistically diverse countries in the world. Despite this incredible variety, Amharic is Ethiopia’s sole official language. Amharic is a Semitic language that belongs to the Afro-Asiatic language family. Following the Arabic language, it is the second most-spoken Semitic language in the world. Amharic uses a
unique script known as Ge’ez (ሀ ለ ሐ መ ሠ ረ ሰ ሸ ቀ). Additionally, Ge’ez is used to write other Ethiopian languages, including Tigrinya and Gurage. The most popular other languages in terms of the number of speakers are Oromo, Somali, and Tigrinya. To localize in Ethiopia, Amharic can attract a sizable audience, especially the younger, educated demographic. However, due to issues of diversity and inclusiveness, individuals often prefer receiving messages in their native languages. As a result, when attempting to engage with an Ethiopian audience, it is crucial to prioritize creating content in the respective native language.”

Ahmaric

“በአፍሪካ ቀንድ ውስጥ የምትገኘው ኢትዮጵያ፣ በቋንቋ እና በባህል ብዝሃነት የምትታወቅ ሀገር ነች። ከ80 በላይ ቋንቋዎች የሚነገሩባት ሀገሪቱ ከዓለማችን ትልቅ የቋንቋ ብዝሃነት ካላቸው ሀገራት አንዷ ነች። ይህ በንዲህ እንዳለ አማርኛ የኢትዮጵያ ብቸኛ ኦፊሴላዊ ቋንቋ ነው።

አማርኛ የአፍሮ-እስያ ቋንቋ ቤተሰብ የሆነ ሴማዊ ቋንቋ ነው። የአረብኛ ቋንቋን ተከትሎ በዓለም ላይ ሁለተኛው ባለ ብዙ ተናጋሪ ሴማዊ ቋንቋ ነው። አማርኛ ግዕዝ (ሀ ለ ሐ መ ረ ሰ ሸ ቀ) በመባል የሚታወቅ ልዩ ፊደል ይጠቀማል። ግእዝ ከአማርኛ በተጨማሪ ትግርኛ እና ጉራግኛን ጨምሮ ሌሎች የኢትዮጵያ ቋንቋዎችን ለመጻፍ ይጠቅማል። ከተናጋሪ ብዛት አንፃር በጣም ትላልቅ የሆኑት ሌሎች ቋንቋዎች ኦሮምኛ፣ ሶማሊኛ እና ትግርኛ ናቸው።

ፅሑፍዎን ኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ ተደራሽ ለማድረግ፣ አማርኛ ቋንቋን መጠቀም ብዙ ተመልካቾችን በተለይም ለወጣት እና ለተማረው የሕብረተሰብ ክፍል እንዲደርስ ሊያደርግልዎ ይችላል። ሆኖም፣ በብዝሃነት እና አቃፊነት ጥያቄዎች ምክንያት ግለሰቦች መልእክቶች በአፍ መፍቻ ቋንቋቸው መቀበልን ይመርጣሉ። በዚህ ምክንያት መልእክትዎ ለኢትዮጵያውያን ታዳሚዎችዎ ለማድረስ በሚሞክሩበት ጊዜ፣ ፅሑፍዎን በሚመለከተው የአፍ መፍቻ ቋንቋ ማዘጋጀትን ቅድሚያ መስጠት አስፈላጊ ነው።”

Mihretab, English/Amharic translator

What the 150 top websites do

Of the top 150 website (Global by design ranking):

  • 31/150 translate into English
  • 2/150 translate into Amharic

If you need others information, below you can find a selection of economic/social/cultural data

Overview


Language

Official language
Amharic (29.3%)

Actual languages

Oromo (33.8%), Somali (6.25%), Tigrinya (5.86%), Sidamo (4.04%), Wellayatta (2.21%), Gurage (2.01%), Afar (1.74%), Haddiya (1.70%), Gamo (1.45%), other (13.09%).

T-index
0.091%

T-Index ranks countries according to their potential for online sales.

English
Low proficiency (EF) – 69th of 113 countries/regions in the world- 8/23 position in Africa.

Demography

Capitals: Addis Ababa
Currency: Ethiopian birr
Population: 121.38 mln
Population density: 115/km2

Economy

GDP: 205.130 billion USD (2022)
GDP per capita: 1,910 USD‎ (2022)
Exports: $4.24 billion USD (2022)

Statistics

Unemployment rate3.9% (2021)
Urbanisation: 23% (2022)
Literacy
52% (2017)
Internet users19.4% penetration, 24.83 million

By 2025 more than 50% of SubSaharan Africa will have a mobile connection, of which 65% will have a smartphone. This will result in more than 475 million mobile internet users; the top three markets for smartphone users are projected to be Nigeria, South Africa, and Kenya.

Conventions

Numbering system
Ethiopic numerals.

Date format: yyyy – mm – dd / dd – mm – yyyy
Time: 12h time system
Country code: 002251

Language data sources: Worldatlas/Britannica//EF/Wikipedia; Demography data sources: IMF/Worldometers; Conventions data source: Wikipedia; Economy data sources: WTO/OEC/CIA/Esomar/Datareportal; Statistics data sources: Datareportal/WorldBank/UN/UNESCO/CEIC/IMF/Culturalatlas/Commisceoglobal

Facts and data


Economy

Imports
$12.2 billion (2022). Wheat ($1.07B), Refined Petroleum ($872M), Vaccines, blood, antisera, toxins and cultures ($549M), Palm Oil ($455M), and Nitrogenous Fertilizers ($437M), importing mostly from China ($2.92B), United States ($1.11B), India ($994M), United Arab Emirates ($764M), and United Kingdom ($541M).

Financial inclusion factors (over 15 years of  age)
• 34.8% have an account with a financial institution
• 0.3% have a credit card
• 0.3% have a mobile money account
• 0.6% make online purchases

Ease of doing business
Ease of conducting business is below average (rated 48 out of 100). Ranked 29th out of 48 African countries. Ranked 159th out of 190 countries worldwide (2023, World Bank)

Exports
$4.24 billion (2022). Coffee ($1.55B), Gold ($546M), Cut Flowers ($255M), Other Vegetables ($235M), and Other Oily Seeds ($212M), exporting mostly to United Arab Emirates ($723M), United States ($557M), Germany ($274M), Saudi Arabia ($268M), and Somalia ($265M).

Main local online stores
Jumia (by far the leading online marketplace in the country), Qefira.com, Sheger.net, ShebaShopping and Delala

Economic freedom
“Mostly not free” (rated 47.9 out of 100). Ranked 37th out of 47 Sub-Saharan African countries. Ranked 156th out of 186 countries worldwide (2023, Heritage Foundation and Wall Street Journal).

Global Innovation Index
Ranked 21st out of 28 Sub-Sahara African countries, 125th out of 132 worldwide.

The Global Innovation Index captures the innovation
ecosystem performance of 132 economies and tracks the most recent global innovation trends.

conomy data sources: WTO/OEC/CIA/Esomar/Datareportal


Service Imports (2018)
Service Exports (2018)

Source: OEC

Trade balance of goods from 2012 to 2022

Source: Statista

Historical Data Trade Imports

The following section uses historical trade data imports from partners of Ethiopia.

Historical Data Trade Exports

The following section uses historical trade data exports from partners of Ethiopia.

Source: OEC

The Top Export Opportunities for Ethiopia by Relatedness

Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product by showing only products that Ethiopia is not specialized in.

Ethiopia's Most Complex Exports

The Product Complexity Index (PCI) measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters.

Source: OEC

Ethiopia's Most Specialized Products

Specialization is measured using Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA), an index that takes the ratio between Ethiopia observed and expected exports in each product.

Source: OEC

Market Growth Imports (2018)

This score represents the likelihood that the given country will start importing that product in the next few years. It forecasts the opening of a new specific market.

Market Growth Exports (2018)

This score represents the likelihood that the given country will start exporting that product in the next few years. It forecasts the opening of a new specific market.

Source: OEC

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (% of GDP)

Source: WorldBank


T-index

T-index

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T-Index ranks countries according to their potential for online sales. It estimates the market share of each country in relation to global e-commerce.

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Media

Media language English, Amaric.

Information channels
Ethiopia’s media looked set for profound change under reforms championed by Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, who took office in early 2018. Imprisoned journalists were freed and exiled pro-opposition media and journalists began to return home. The government unblocked hundreds of mainly opposition websites. Before the change of government, Ethiopia was repeatedly ranked among the worst countries in the world for media freedom. Anti-terrorism laws criminalised reporting of the activities of banned opposition groups and in 2016 the government announced strict controls over the media amid a state of emergency over anti-government protests. The rules outlawed watching or listening to outlets belonging to what the government called “terrorist organisations”, such as the Amsterdam-based opposition ESAT TV and US-based OMN. Radio is an important medium, reaching rural areas where most Ethiopians live. Although the state controls most broadcasting outlets, there is a handful of private TV and radio stations. Press circulation is largely confined to the literate urban elite. Poor infrastructure and a government monopoly in the ICT sector make online services prohibitively expensive for many Ethiopians.

The press

Addis Zemen – state-owned daily
Ethiopian Herald – state-owned English-language daily
The Daily Monitor – private, English-language
Addis Admass
– private, Amharic-language weekly
The Reporter
– private, English-language web pages
Capital
– English-language, business weekly
Addis Fortune
– English-language business weekly

Television

Ethiopian Television (ETV) – state-owned
Fana TV – private
Walta TV – private
ESAT – opposition satellite station s

Radio

Radio Ethiopia – state-owned, operates National Service and regional stations
Voice of Tigray Revolution – Tigray Regional State government radio
Radio Fana – founded in 1994 by ruling party
Sheger FM – private, Addis Ababa
Zami Radio – private, Addis Ababa

News agency

Walta Information Centre (WIC) – privately-owned, pro-government
Ethiopian News Agency (ENA) – state-owned

Media data source: BBC


Internet Data

Internet users
19.4% penetration, 24.83 million

Share of web traffic by device
67.57% mobile phones, 30.64% computers (laptops and desktops), 1.78% tablet devices, others (0.01%).

Median speed of mobile Internet connection
27.19 Mbps

Median speed of fixed Internet connection
7.72 Mbps

Mobile connection as a percentage of total population
60.4%

Percentage of mobile connections that are broadband (3G-5G)
98%

Most popular web search engines
Google (94.16%), Bing (4.85%), Yahoo! (0.56%), DuckduckGo (0.24%), Yandex (0.05%), other (0.13%).

Most used social media
Facebook (70.45%), YouTube (9.26%), Pinterest (7.12%), Twitter (6.45%), Instagram (4.9%), LinkedIn (1.17%), Reddit (0.46%), other (0.19%).

Internet data sources: Datareportal/Statcounter


Social statistics

Life expectancy
65 yrs (2021)

Corruption perceptions Index
Ethiopia scored 38 out of 100, ranked 94th out of 180 countries worldwide.

Current health expenditure
3.48% of GDP

CO2 emissions
0.2 metric tons per capita

Current education expenditure
61.7% of total expenditure in public institutions

Ethnicity
Ethiopia is a multi-ethnic society. The present structure of the government – a federation of ethnic based states – has created more tension. It is public knowledge that those who belong to the ruling ethnic group have better access to services and can get things done or decisions made in a relatively shorter time than others.

Gender and religion have very limited influence in the workplace. On the other hand, ethnicity could affect the work environment, in particular, when it is used as means of associating with a manager or supervisor. This could limit interaction and openness among co-workers and isolates those who belong to other ethnic groups. Ethnicity is causing a significant problem in the present-day Ethiopia and it is being used as a means of gaining power and privileges.

Cultural Curiosities

Ethiopia is home to over 80 different ethnicities. Despite this ethnic and religious diversity, however, a strong feeling of patriotism and pride unites the country’s citizens.

When visiting an Ethiopian household, it is considered impolite to decline the offer of food, as in many cultures. It is also tradition that guests be fed the tastiest part of a meal by hand. This is called “Gursha” and is done to honor guests. 

As mentioned previously, Ethiopians use a different numerical system, so be prepared when discussing numbers or presenting statistics to locals. 

Another difference is the calendar: the Ethiopian year starts on September 11th of the Gregorian calendar.

Gender
Ethiopian women are fully engaged in the production and distribution of goods and services of the economy but the majority of them are not fully compensated for their contribution to the economic development and welfare of society. Even in Addis Ababa and among the well-educated, liberal members of the society, men’s opinions are valued more than those of women. In the workplace, Ethiopian women are paid an equal amount for equal work, experience and education but when it comes to promotion to a higher position, men seem to be favoured. Women are seen as soft and delicate and are not perceived as being capable of making tough decisions and undertaking hazardous duties.

Religion
Ethiopia is a multi-religious country with the domination of the two religions: Ethiopian Orthodox Church and Islam. These two religions account for 95% of the population. So far, there have been no major religious conflicts within major cities, there is evidence of some incidents associated with orthodox thinking and ultra-right tendencies influenced by external forces in certain areas.

Class
It is no longer accurate to say that class exists in Ethiopian society and more so after the fall of the land tenure system and the 1974 Ethiopian revolution. However, Ethiopian society is very hierarchical and wealth does brings respect and recognition. The role of community leaders and elders, in the urban areas, has diminished but is still very relevant in rural areas.

World Happiness Index
Ethiopia ranked 131st out of 146 countries, with a score of 4.241.

Social statistics sources: WorldBank/UN/UNESCO/CEIC/IMF


The Data Factbook is a work in progress project. Our community is helping us to fill it up always with new and updated data. Your contribution is precious. If you want to help us, please write your advices at imminent@translated.com


Country Curiosities


A Unique Ethiopian Chronology

The Ethiopian calendar is behind the Gregorian calendar by approximately 7-8 years due to differences in calculating the date of the Annunciation. The Ethiopian version, based on the ancient Coptic calendar, considers the event to have occurred earlier than the Gregorian calendar does.
This difference in calculating the epoch change leads to a distinct divergence in the numbering of years. Additionally, the Ethiopian calendar has 13 months: 12 months of 30 days each and a 13th month, Pagumē, with 5 or 6 days depending on whether the year is a leap year. As such, the Ethiopian calendar maintains a unique historical and cultural chronology that reflects Ethiopia’s rich heritage. As of May 2024 in the Gregorian calendar, the Ethiopian calendar year is 2016.

Additionally…

  • Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Africa, surpassed only by Nigeria.
  • Addis Ababa, the capital, is one of the highest capitals in the world, located at 3,000 meters above sea level.
  • Ethiopia was the only country in Africa that wasn’t colonized, save for a 10-year occupation by Mussolini.
  • The first modern Homo sapiens, Lucy, was discovered in Ethiopia.
  • The Danakil Desert is one of the hottest places on Earth.
  • Ethiopia is a profoundly Christian country.

Languages research


Languages spoken in Ethiopia


The geographical distribution of languages that you will find in the maps published in this section is a work in progress. Our community is helping us to fill it up with always new and updated data. Your contribution is precious. If you want to help us, please write to imminent.factbook@translated.com


Photo credit: Yohannes Minas, Unsplash