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To which language should you translate to localize in Mongolia?

What the 150 top websites do

Of the top 150 website (Global by design ranking):

  • 19/150 translate into English
  • 9/150 translate into Mongolian
  • 1/150 translates also into the Mongolian Sign Language (MSL)

If you need others information, below you can find a selection of economic/social/cultural data



Official language
Mongolian (95%)

Actual languages
Oirat and Buryat are the two most common dialects spoken. The Mongolic Khamnigan, Kazakh and Tuvan languages are also spoken in different regions of the country.


T-Index ranks countries according to their potential for online sales.

Low proficiency (EF) – 72 of 111 countries/regions in the world- 13/24 position in Asia.


Capital: Ulaanbaatar
Currency: Mongolian tögrög
Population: 3.39 m
Population density: 2/km2


GDP: 16,81 billion USD (2022)
GDP per capita: 4,946.8 USD ‎(2022) ‎
Exports: $10.5 billion (2021)


Internet users: 84.3% penetration, 2.89 million
Unemployment rate: 7.8% (2021)
Urbanisation: 69% (2022)
Literacy: 99% (2020)


Numbering system
Arabic numerals with comma as decimal separator.

Date format: yyyy-mm-dd
Time: 24h time system
Country code: 00976

Language data sources: Worldatlas/Britannica//EF/Wikipedia; Demography data sources: IMF/Worldometers; Conventions data source: Wikipedia; Economy data sources: WTO/OEC/CIA/Esomar/Datareportal; Statistics data sources: Datareportal/WorldBank/UN/UNESCO/CEIC/IMF/Culturalatlas/Commisceoglobal

Facts and data


$6.82 billion (2021). Refined Petroleum ($1.01B), Cars ($420M), Delivery Trucks ($303M), Trailers and semi-trailers, not mechanically propelled vehicles ($204M), and Electricity ($161M), importing mostly from China ($2.5B), Russia ($1.81B), Japan ($484M), South Korea ($366M), and Germany ($199M).

Financial inclusion factors (over 15 years of  age)
• 98.2% have an account with a financial institution
• 7% have a credit card
• 58.8% have a mobile money account
• 39.5% make online purchases

Ease of doing business
Moderately ease of conducting business is medium (rated 67.8 out of 100). Ranked 10th out of 25 East Asia & Pacific countries. Ranked 81st out of 190 countries worldwide (2022, World Bank)

$10.5 billion (2021). Copper Ore ($2.9B), Coal Briquettes ($2.74B), Gold ($2.11B), Iron Ore ($945M), and Animal Hair ($325M), exporting mostly to China ($7.64B), Switzerland ($1.97B), Singapore ($255M), South Korea ($221M), and Russia ($114M).

In 2021, Mongolia was the world’s biggest exporter of Animal Hair ($325M).

Main local online stores,

Economic freedom
‘Moderately free’ (rated 61.7 out of 100). Ranked 15th out of 27 East Asia & Pacific countries. Ranked 73rd out of 186 countries worldwide (2022, Heritage Foundation and Wall Street Journal).

Global Innovation Index
Ranked 12th out of 17 South East Asia, East Asia and Oceania countries, and 71st out of 132 worldwide.

The Global Innovation Index captures the innovation
ecosystem performance of 132 economies and tracks the most recent global innovation trends.

Economy data sources: WTO/OEC/CIA/Esomar/Datareportal

Service Imoprts (2019)
Service Exports (2019)

Source: OEC

Most specialised products by RCA Index

Specialisation is measured using Revealed Comparative Advantage, an index that takes the ratio between Mongolia observed and expected exports in each product

Source: OEC

Most Complex Products by PCI

Product Complexity Index measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters

Source: OEC

Export Opportunities by Relatedness

Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product, the column chart show only products that Mongolia is not specialized in

Source: OEC



Reach most of the online purchasing power

T-Index ranks countries according to their potential for online sales. It estimates the market share of each country in relation to global e-commerce.

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Media language Mongolian, English.

Information channels
Mongolia’s public broadcaster competes with privately-owned and satellite and cable outlets. Press freedom is generally respected, says the US-based NGO Freedom House. But media ownership is opaque and many journalists self-censor to avoid offending political or business interests. Reporters Without Borders says that more than half of all the defamation cases in Mongolia are brought against journalists and media. Despite a high level of literacy, newspaper circulations tend to be small. Some titles are published by political parties. BBC World Service broadcasts on 103.1 FM in Ulan Bator.

The press

Odriyn Sonin (Daily News) – private daily
Onoodor – private daily, the country’s biggest
Zuuny Medee – private daily
Unen (Truth) – Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party daily, the country’s oldest newspaper, founded in 1920
The UB Post – English-language weekly


Mongolian National Broadcaster (MNB) – national, public broadcaster
TV 25 – private
UBS TV – owned by Ulan Bator city government
C1 – private
TV5 – private
TV9 – private


Mongolian Radio – public, sole national broadcaster

News agency

Montsame – state-owned, English-language pages

Media data source: BBC

Internet Data

Internet users
84.3% penetration, 2.89 million

Share of web traffic by device
58.81% mobile phones, 40.35% computers (laptops and desktops), 0.84% tablet devices and 0.01% other devices.

Median speed of mobile Internet connection
18.37  Mbps

Median speed of fixed Internet connection
52.47 Mbps

Mobile connection as a percentage of total population: 140.2%

Percentage of mobile connections that are broadband (3G-5G): 80.9%

Most popular web search engines
Google (95.57%), Bing (3.03%), Yahoo! (0.54%), YANDEX (0.37%),  Baidu (0.22%), other (0.28%).

Most used social media
Facebook (87.91%), Pinterest (4.74%), Twitter (3.36%), YouTube (1.79%), Instagram (1.66%), reddit (0.29%), LinkedIn (0.13%), other (0.12%).

Internet data sources: Datareportal/Statcounter

Social statistics

Life expectancy
71 yrs (2021)

Corruption perceptions Index
Mongolia scored 33 out of 100, ranked 116 out 180 countries worldwide.

Current health expenditure
4.94% of GDP

CO2 emissions
6.4 metric tons per capita

World Happiness Index
Mongolia ranked 68 out of 146 countries, with a score of 5.761.

Current education expenditure
91.1% of total expenditure in public institutions.

Social statistics sources: WorldBank/UN/UNESCO/CEIC/IMF

Tertiary education in Mongolia

Source: UNESCO

Tertiary education in Mongolia by sex

Source: UNESCO

The Data Factbook is a work in progress project. Our community is helping us to fill it up always with new and updated data. Your contribution is precious. If you want to help us, please write your advices at

Languages research

Languages in Mongolia


  • Mongolian

  • Kalmyk-Oirat

  • Peripheral Mongolian

  • Buriat

  • Evenki

  • Darkhat

  • Tuva

  • Chinese

  • Kazakh

  • Uygur

The geographical distribution of languages that you will find in the maps published in this section is a work in progress. Our community is helping us to fill it up with always new and updated data. Your contribution is precious. If you want to help us, please write to

Photo credit: Usukhbayar Gankhuyag, Unsplash