Translated's Research Center

Nigeria

Africa

To which language should you translate to localize in Nigeria?

Introduction


Language

Official language
English. Communication in the English language is much more popular in the country’s urban communities than it is in the rural areas, thanks to globalisation.

T-index
0.65%

T-Index ranks countries according to their potential for online sales.

Other languages
Hausa – is one of the regional languages used in Nigeria. The language is one of the largest in West Africa and it has an estimated 30 million native users while an additional 20 million people use the language as the second language.

Yoruba – is spoken by around 18.9 million Nigerians. 

Igbo – is one of the most popular languages in Nigeria with an estimated 24 million native speakers, the majority of whom are members of the Igbo ethnic group. 

Indigenous languages
Nigeria is home to hundreds of indigenous languages. In recent years, the federal government has been making efforts to promote the use of indigenous languages, many of which are endangered. Some of the indigenous languages spoken in Nigeria include Tiv, Kanuri, and Fulfulde.

English
Moderate proficiency (EF) – 34 of 100 countries/regions in the world- 3/13 position in Africa.

Demography

Capital: Abuja
Currency: Nigerian naira
Population: 195.88 m
Population density: 212.04/km2 

Economy

GDP: 432.29 billion USD (2020)
GDP per capita: 2,097.09 USD ‎(2020) ‎
Exports: $63.8 billion (2019)

Statistics

Unemployment rate: 6.11% (2020)
Urbanisation: 50.34% (2020)
Literacy: 62% (2019)>
Internet users: 51% penetration, 109.2 million

By 2025 more than 50% of SubSaharan Africa will have a mobile connection, of which 65% will have a smartphone. This will result in more than 475 million mobile internet users; the top three markets for smartphone users are projected to be Nigeria, South Africa, and Kenya.

Conventions

Numbering system
Arabic numbering system and point as decimal separator

Date format: dd – mm – yyyy
Time: 24h time system
Country code: 00234


Language data sources: Worldatlas/Britannica//EF/Wikipedia; Demography data sources: IMF/Worldometers; Conventions data source: Wikipedia; Economy data sources: WTO/OEC/CIA/Esomar/Datareportal; Statistics data sources: Datareportal/WorldBank/UN/UNESCO/CEIC/IMF/Culturalatlas/Commisceoglobal


The new 2021 T-index

The new 2021 T-index

Reach most of the online purchasing power

T-Index ranks countries according to their potential for online sales. It estimates the market share of each country in relation to global e-commerce.

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Facts and data


Economy

Imports
$52.5 billion (2019). Refined Petroleum ($10B), Cars ($1.57B), Wheat ($1.48B), Laboratory Glassware ($1.45B), and Packaged Medicaments ($1.32B). Partners: China ($15.5B), Netherlands ($5.91B), India ($3.76B), United States ($3.22B), and Belgium ($2.81B).

Financial inclusion factors (over 15 years of  age)
• 48% have an account with a financial institution
• 24% have a credit card
• 2.4% have a mobile money account
• 19% make online purchases

Ease of doing business
‘Mostly not free’ (57.3 out of 100) 15th out of 52 African countries 111th worldwide out of 186 countries (2019, Heritage Foundation and Wall Street Journal)

Exports
$63.8 billion (2019). Crude Petroleum ($46B), Petroleum Gas ($7.78B), Scrap Vessels ($2.26B), Flexible Metal Tubing ($2.1B), and Cocoa Beans ($715M). Partners: India ($10.5B), Spain ($6.32B), United States ($4.68B), France ($4.37B), and Ghana ($4.04B).

Main local online stores
Buyam.com.ng, Adibba.com, Ojashop.com, Mystore.com, Regalbuyer, Fouani.com, Gloo.ng, Gidimall.com.

Economic freedom
Medium, ease of conducting business is rated 56.9 out of 100, ranked 20th out of 53 African countries, 131st worldwide out of 190 countries (2020, World Bank)

Global Innovation Index
Ranked 16th out of 39 Sub-Saharan countries, 118th out of 132 worldwide.

The Global Innovation Index captures the innovation
ecosystem performance of 132 economies and tracks the most recent global innovation trends.


Economy data sources: WTO/OEC/CIA/Esomar/Datareportal


Service Imports (2015)

Source: OEC


Service Exports (2015)

Source: OEC


Most Complex Products by PCI

Product Complexity Index measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters

Source: OEC


Most specialised products by RCA Index

Specialisation is measured using Revealed Comparative Advantage, an index that takes the ratio between Nigeria observed and expected exports in each product

Source: OEC


Export Opportunities by Relatedness

Relatedness measures the distance between a country's current exports and each product, the barchart show only products that Nigeria is not specialized in

Source: OEC


Payments method accepted by digital platforms in Nigeria

Sources: i2i


Media

Media language English

Information channels
Nigeria’s media scene is one of the liveliest in Africa. State radio and TV operate at federal and regional levels. All 36 states run at least one radio network and a TV station. There are hundreds of radio stations and terrestrial TV networks, as well as cable and direct-to-home satellite offerings. Radio is a key source of information. International broadcasters, including the BBC, are popular. However, rebroadcasting of foreign radio content is banned. State TV says it reaches tens of millions of viewers, while the main privately-owned networks are market leaders in some cities. There are more than 100 national and local press titles, some of them state-owned. They include well-respected dailies, tabloids and publications which champion ethnic interests. According to Reporters Without Borders (RSF), journalists are often threatened, subjected to physical violence, or denied access to information by officials and police. Boko Haram, a militant Islamist group, has threatened the media. Mobile phones are often used to access the web. Most internet users are young, educated and urban.

The press

The Guardian – influential, Lagos-based privately-owned national daily
The Punch – privately-owned daily
Premium Times – Abuja-based daily
Daily Independent – Lagos State-based daily
Daily Trust – Abuja-based daily
Leadership – Abuja-based daily
Vanguard – Lagos-based, widely-read daily
This Day
– widely-read Lagos-based daily
The Daily Sun – Lagos-based
Tell
– news weekly

Television

Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) – state-run, operates scores of national, and regional stations; national services broadcast in English
AIT – private, owned by DAAR Communications, broadcasting in Lagos, Abuja and internationally via satellite
Silverbird TV – private, Lagos, Port Harcourt
Galaxy TV – private, western Nigeria
Channels TV – private

Radio

Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) – state-run, operates in multiple languages
Ray Power — private, owned by DAAR Communications, runs music-based and speech-based FM stations
Freedom Radio – private, Kano

News agency

News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) – gov-owned


Media data source: BBC


The power of media

The power of media

By Luca De Biase

English is Nigeria’s language of power, but voices are rising in defense of linguistic heritage.Multi-awarded author and journalist Luca de Biase is a professor at Pisa University, innovation editor at Sole 24Ore newspaper and a Member of the Mission Assembly for Climate-Neutral and Smart Cities, amongst many other roles and achievements.

Read it now

Internet Data

Internet users
51% penetration, 109.2 million

Share of web traffic by device
72.8% mobile phones, 25.7% computers (laptops and desktops), 1.6% tablet devices

Average speed of mobile Internet connection
15.32  Mbps

Average speed of fixed Internet connection
11.92 Mbps

Mobile connection as a percentage of total population: 83%

Percentage of mobile connections that are broadband (3G-5G): 60%

Most popular web search engines
Google (98.25%), Bing (0.97%),Yahoo (0.5%), Baidu (0.11%) Duckduckgo (0.11%), Yandex Ru (0.02%)

Most used social media
Facebook (47.81%), Twitter (27.13%), Instagram (11.68%), Pinterest (11.18%),  YouTube (1.76%), Linkedin (0.22%)


Internet data sources: Datareportal/Statcounter


Social statistics

Life expectancy
54.81 yrs (2020)

Healthcare expenditure
3.8% of GDP (2017)

Average age of the population
18.1 yrs (2020) 

Cultural Curiosities
With more than 1000 ethnicities, Nigeria’s culture is a truly intriguing mixture of different traditions and customs. As a whole, Nigerians are perceived as very emotional and warm people. When doing business, greetings are considered fundamental; they might be longer than the typical western handshake, and it is considered very rude to suddenly start discussing business, thus asking the “courtesy” questions beforehand is appreciated. 


Social statistics sources: WorldBank/UN/UNESCO/CEIC/IMF


Languages research


Languages spoken in Nigeria

Legend

  • Chamba

  • Edo

  • Efik-Ibibio

  • Gwari

  • Hausa/Fulani

  • Igbo

  • Ijaw

  • Kanuri

  • Nupe

  • Tiv

  • Yoruba

  • Mixed

Language
English79,000,000
Hausa27,000,000
Yoruba18,850,000
Igbo24,000,000
Main languages in Nigeria

The geographical distribution of languages that you will find in the maps published in this section is a work in progress. Our community is helping us to fill it up with always new and updated data. Your contribution is precious. If you want to help us, please write to imminent.factbook@translated.com


Hausa

Hausa is one of the regional languages used in Nigeria. The language is one of the largest in West Africa and it has an estimated 30 million native users while an additional 20 million people use the language as the second language. Hausa is a West Chadic language under the larger Chadic language group of the Afro-Asiatic language family. Hausa is made up of numerous geographically defined dialects, but only the Dauranchi and the Kananci dialects are recognized as the standard dialect of the language. The use of the language is also propagated by local media as well as international media such as Deutsche Welle, Voice of America as well The BBC. The Hausa language traditionally used the Arabic writing system, but in recent years the language has incorporated the use of the Latin alphabet. The Hausa people are one of the largest ethnic groups found in Africa as well as Nigeria. The Hausa people make up around 25% of the population of Nigeria.

Yoruba

The Yoruba language is spoken by around 18.9 million Nigerians. It is the native language of the Yoruba people, a people native to West Africa. The Yoruba language is a member of the Niger-Congo family. Yoruba is a tonal language and comprises of three tones, namely high, mid, and low. Yoruba also features many loan words from Arabic.

Igbo

Igbo is another regional language popularly used in Nigeria, particularly in the southeastern region of the country. The language is categorised under the Volta-Niger language group which is under the larger Niger-Congo language family. Igbo is one of the most popular languages in Nigeria with an estimated 24 million native speakers, the majority of whom are members of the Igbo ethnic group. There are more than 20 dialects of the Igbo language, but the standardised Igbo is based on Umuahia and Owerri dialects.

Indigenous languages in Nigeria

Nigeria is home to a diverse number of ethnic groups, thus it only make sense that it also hosts hundreds of indigenous languages. In recent years, the federal government has been making efforts to promote the use of indigenous languages, many of which are endangered. Some of the indigenous languages spoken in Nigeria include Tiv, Kanuri, and Fulfulde.


The Data Factbook is a work in progress project. Our community is helping us to fill it up always with new and updated data. Your contribution is precious. If you want to help us, please write your advices at imminent@translated.com


Photo credit: Lagos Techie, Unsplash