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Tonga

Oceania

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Introduction


Language

Official language
English and Tongan

English is the only language spoken in the home for close to 72.7% of the population. The next most common languages spoken at home are: Mandarin (2.5%) and Arabic (1.4%)

T-index
0.00077%

T-Index ranks countries according to their potential for online sales.

Actual languages
Indigenous: Australian Aboriginal languages, Tasmanian languages, Torres Strait Island languages

Demography

Capital:  Nuku’alofa
Currency:  paʻanga
Population:  105,697 thousands (2020) 
Population density: 130/km2 

Economy

GDP: 488,829,964 USD (2020)
GDP per capita: 4,624.8 USD ‎(2020) ‎
Exports: $284 billion (2019)

Statistics

Internet users: 41.3%, 43.8 thousands (2021)
Unemployment rate: 1.09% (2019)
Urbanisation: 23.13% (2018)
Literacy: 99.39% (2018)

Conventions

Numbering system
Arabic numerals with dot as decimal separator, comma as thousands separator

Date format: yyyy-mm-dd / dd-mm-yyyy
Time: 24h time system (a.m/p.m)
Country code: 00676 


ldatlas/Britannica//EF/Wikipedia; Demography data sources: IMF/Worldometers; Conventions data source: Wikipedia; Economy data sources: WTO/OEC/CIA/Esomar/Datareportal; Statistics data sources: Datareportal/WorldBank/UN/UNESCO/CEIC/IMF/Culturalatlas/Commisceoglobal


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Facts and data


Economy

Imports
$1.97k (2019). Refined Petroleum ($43.5M), Poultry Meat ($10.9M), Audio Alarms ($4.44M), Sheep and Goat Meat ($4.12M), and Broadcasting Equipment ($3.96M), importing mostly from Fiji ($58.9M), New Zealand ($47.6M), China ($29.4M), United States ($16.2M), and Australia ($12.8M).

Ease of doing business
It is moderately easy to conduct business (rated 61.4 out of 100) ranked 10th out of 25 countries in East Asia Pacific are, ranked 103rd out of 190 countries worldwide (2019, World Bank)

Exports
$142 (2019). Other Vegetables ($3.06M), Non-fillet Fresh Fish ($2.79M), Other Processed Fruits and Nuts ($1.56M), Antiques ($1.32M), and Coral and Shells ($1.27M), exporting mostly to United States ($5.61M), South Korea ($2.65M), Australia ($2.14M), New Zealand ($2.01M), and Japan ($965k).

Economic freedom
‘Mostly Unfree’ (57.5 out of 100) ranked 23rd out of 40 Asia-Pacific countries ranked 5th out of 186 countries worldwide (2019, Heritage Foundation and Wall Street Journal)


Economy data sources: WTO/OEC/CIA/Esomar/Datareportal


Service Exports (2013)

Source: OEC


Service Imports (2013)

Source: OEC


Most specialised products by RCA Index

Specialisation is measured using Revealed Comparative Advantage, an index that takes the ratio between Tonga observed and expected exports in each product

Source: OEC


Most complex products by PCI Index

Product Complexity Index measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters

Source: OEC


Export Opportunities by Relatedness

Specialisation is measured using Revealed Comparative Advantage, an index that takes the ratio between Tonga observed and expected exports in each product

Source: OEC


Media

Media language English, Tongan

Information channels
State radio and TV tend to be pro-government, while private broadcasters offer little independent local coverage. Privately-owned newspapers carry opposition views, but journalists can face harassment and threats of criminal charges. A Department of Information oversees all media reporting, US-based Freedom House notes.

The press

Tonga Daily News – weekly newspaper and online news service
Times of Tonga – privately-owned, published from New Zealand
Matangi Tonga – privately-owned magazine; website carries news in English

Television

Tonga Broadcasting Commission – state-owned, operates Television Tonga
DigiTV – digital cable TV

Radio

Tonga Broadcasting Commission – state-owned, operates mediumwave (AM) station Radio Tonga 1 and Kool 90FM
Tonga Radio “Magic” 89.1 FM – private
Letio Faka-Kalisitiane 93FM – private, Christian
Radio Nuku’alofa – private


Media data source: BBC


Internet Data

Internet users
41.3%, 43.8 thousands (2021)

Share of web traffic by device
58.3% mobile phones, 38.7% computers (laptops and desktops), 2.9% tablet devices, others 0.04%

Mobile connections as a percentage of total population:
106%

Percentage of mobile connections that are broadband (3G-5G)
42%

Most popular web search engines
Google (94.21%), Bing (2.19%),Yahoo (1.55%), Duckduckgo (1.17%), Baidu (0.61%), Shenma (0.1%)

Most used social media
 Facebook (88.82%), Pinterest (6.74%), Instagram (1.83%), Twitter(1.58%), YouTube (0.77%), Tumblr (0.15%)


Internet data sources: Datareportal/Statcounter


Social statistics

Life expectancy
70.7 yrs (2017)

Average age of the population
22.4 yrs (2020) 

Healthcare expenditure
4.41% of GDP (2018)

Cultural Curiosities
There is a more relaxed approach towards business, and building a relationship of trust with your business counterpart is fundamental. 

‘Anga fakatonga’ (the Tongan way) is very important, and Tongans tend to want to explain and show their customs and traditions to foreigners. 


Social statistics sources: WorldBank/UN/UNESCO/CEIC/IMF


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Language research


Languages spoken in Tonga


The geographical distribution of languages that you will find in the maps published in this section is a work in progress. Our community is helping us to fill it up with always new and updated data. Your contribution is precious. If you want to help us, please write to imminent.factbook@translated.com


Photo credit: Jovi Waqa, Unsplash