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Turkey

Asia

To which language should you translate to localize in Turkey?

What we know from our community

“Turkish is the official language of the Republic of Turkey. Some 70 other languages and dialects are also spoken, including various dialects of Caucasian and Kurdish as well as Arabic, Greek, Ladino and Armenian, and Balkan languages like Bosnian, Albanian, Bulgarian, the almost extinct Syriac.  Of the 4,000 or so languages currently spoken in the world, Turkish ranks seventh in terms of numbers of speakers and area, being used by around 200 million people. Outside of Turkey, the Turkish diaspora and minorities in the former Ottoman lands (about 30 countries) speak Turkish. Closely related languages fall under the umbrella of Turkic languages and for Turkey, “Istanbul Turkish” is the modern, accepted norm. The language is phonetic, agglutinative, and grammatically genderless, uses some special letters and follows a vowel harmony.

A map of Turkey would quickly reveal that geographically it is a bridge between the west and the east, which makes her also a hub for trade and business. One thing to keep in mind when localizing in Turkey would obviously be to be aware of the cultural nuances and sensitivities. Not labeling the country and/or the culture simply as Middle Eastern or Arabic would go a long way as well as avoiding religious undertones. We take pride in living on a beautiful land that has been a cradle of civilizations for many centuries, speaking a language that dates back even more centuries and we are a very diverse bunch.”

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If you need others information, below you can find a selection of economic/social/cultural data

Overview


Language

Official language
Turkish (70%)

T-index
0.88%

T-Index ranks countries according to their potential for online sales.

Other languages
Kurdish, spoken by 6%, Kurmanji 12%, Arabic and Zazaki

Immigrant languages: Crimean, Georgian, Kabardian, Bosnian, Albanian, Adyghe and Tatar

English
Low proficiency (EF) – 66 of 113 countries/regions in the world- 33/34 position in Europe.

Demography

Capital: Ankara
Currency: Turkish lira
Population: 84,97 m
Population density: 109/km2

Economy

GDP: 907,11 billion USD (2022)
GDP per capita: 10,674.5 USD ‎(2022) ‎
Exports: $262 billion (2022)

Statistics

Internet users: 86.5% penetration, 74.41 million
Unemployment rate: 10.4% (2022)
Urbanisation: 77% (2022)
Literacy: 97% (2019)

Conventions

Numbering system
Arabic numerals with comma as decimal separator

Date format: dd-mm-yyyy
Time: 24h time system
Country code: 0090

Language data sources: Worldatlas/Britannica//EF/Wikipedia; Demography data sources: IMF/Worldometers; Conventions data source: Wikipedia; Economy data sources: WTO/OEC/CIA/Esomar/Datareportal; Statistics data sources: Datareportal/WorldBank/UN/UNESCO/CEIC/IMF/Culturalatlas/Commisceoglobal

Facts and data


Economy

Imports
$299 billion (2022). Gold ($19B), Refined Petroleum ($17B), Scrap Iron ($8.77B), Cars ($8.75B), and Petroleum Gas ($8.48B), importing mostly from China ($38.5B), Germany ($27.6B), Russia ($25.3B), United States ($14.6B), and Italy ($14.1B).

Financial inclusion factors (over 15 years of  age)
• 67.7% have an account with a financial institution
• 41.6% have a credit card
• 16.4% have a mobile money account
• 10.3% make online purchases

Ease of doing business
It is very easy to conduct business (rated 76.8 out of 100) ranked 6th out of 24 European and Central Asian countries ranked 33rd out of 190 countries worldwide (2020, World Bank)

Main local online stores
Gitti Gidiyor, Hepsiburada, Araba.com and Trendyol.

Exports
$262 billion (2022).  Refined Petroleum ($12.3B), Cars ($9.67B), Jewellery ($8.12B), Motor vehicles; parts and accessories (8701 to 8705) ($6.78B), and Delivery Trucks ($5.88B), exporting mostly to Germany ($21.9B), United States ($17.1B), Iraq ($13.7B), United Kingdom ($13.7B), and Italy ($12.6B).

Economic freedom
‘Moderately free’ (rated 56.2 out of 100) ranked 41st out of 43 European countries ranked 102th out of 186 countries worldwide (2019, Heritage Foundation and Wall Street Journal)

Global Innovation Index
Ranked 4th out of 39 Northern African Western Asian countries, 39th out of 132 worldwide.

The Global Innovation Index captures the innovation
ecosystem performance of 132 economies and tracks the most recent global innovation trends.

Economy data sources: WTO/OEC/CIA/Esomar/Datareporta


Service Imports (2020)
Service Exports (2020)

Source: OEC

No data

Source: OEC

Historical Data Trade Imports (2020)

The following section uses historical trade data imports from partners of Turkey.

Historical Data Trade Exports (2020)

The following section uses historical trade data imports from partners of Turkey.

Source: OEC

No data

No data

Source: OEC

No data

Sources: Kantar TNS; CACE

Turkey's Most Specialized Products

Specialization is measured using Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA), an index that takes the ratio between Turkey observed and expected exports in each product.

Source: OEC

No data

Source: Statista

No data

Source: Statista

Market Growth Imports (2020)

This score represents the likelihood that the given country will start importing that product in the next few years. It forecasts the opening of a new specific market.

Market Growth Exports (2020)

This score represents the likelihood that the given country will start exporting that product in the next few years. It forecasts the opening of a new specific market.

Source: OEC


T-index

T-index

Reach most of the online purchasing power

T-Index ranks countries according to their potential for online sales. It estimates the market share of each country in relation to global e-commerce.

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Media

Media language
Turkish

Information channels
The media are dominated by pro-government outlets. In the press, critical voices are limited to a few low-circulation publications. Television is the leading news medium, although audiences are gravitating online. State broadcaster TRT operates in many languages, including the main minority language, Kurmanji Kurdish. The biggest media group is government-friendly Demiroren, which owns the popular Hurriyet and Posta newspapers and CNN Turk and Kanal D TVs. Critical news outlets can face police raids, tax fines and other hostile measures. Most arrested journalists are charged with membership in, or propaganda for, groups considered as terrorist organisations. Reporters for Kurdish media are regularly detained and jailed. “Insulting the president” is a crime. The courts routinely ban websites or block specific pages, including opposition news sites and content deemed to be linked to terrorism. A 2020 law gives the government significant powers to regulate social media content. It obliges major platforms to store user data in Turkey and appoint a local representative to carry out content removal requests.

Online

Ensonhaber – news portal
T24 – news website
Internet Haber – news site
Bianet – news site, pages in English

The press

Hurriyet – pro-government daily
Hurriyet Daily News – English-language version of Hurriyet
Sozcu – nationalist, secularist daily
Milliyet – pro-government daily
Cumhuriyet – nationalist-leaning daily
Sabah – pro-government daily, English-language pages
Daily Sabah – English-language daily

Television

Turkish Radio and Television (TRT) – state broadcaster, operates multiple networks
Star TV – private
Show TV – private
Kanal D – private
ATV – private
Fox – private
NTV – private, news
CNN Turk – private, news

Radio

Turkish Radio and Television (TRT) – state broadcaster, networks include,speech-based TRT Radio 1, news station TRT Radio Haber, Kurdish-language TRT Radio Kurdi
Show Radyo – private
NTV Radio – private

Media data source: BBC


Internet Data

Internet users
86.5% penetration, 74.41 million

Share of web traffic by device
73.05% mobile phones, 25.54% computers (laptops and desktops), 1.39% tablet devices, others 0.02%

Median speed of mobile Internet connection
33.96  Mbps

Median speed of fixed Internet connection
41.49 Mbps

Mobile connection as a percentage of total population: 91.4%

Percentage of mobile connections that are broadband (3G-5G): 96.5%

Most popular web search engines
Google (81.08%), Yandex (14.72%), Bing (2%), Yahoo (1.56%), Duckduckgo (0.54%)

Most used social media
Facebook (49.27%),  Instagram (21.3%), X (twitter) (12.4%), YouTube (10.9%), Pinterest (5.41%), Reddit (0.92%), Tumblr (0.43%)

Internet data sources: Datareportal/Statcounter


Social statistics

Life expectancy
76 yrs (2021)

Graduates (tertiary education)
Tertiary attainment is still low in Turkey. About one-third (33%) of Turkey’s young adults (25-34 year-olds) had attained tertiary education by 2018, 11 percentage points below the OECD average of 44%. Turkey has made substantial progress in the last decade, however, with the proportion of young adults attaining tertiary education more than doubling from 15% in 2008. (2019)

Religion
Religion in Turkey is predominantly Muslim around 98%.

Current education expenditure
67.5% of GDP (2020)

Glass Ceiling Index
35.7 out 100, ranked 28th out of 30 countries.

The glass-ceiling index measures the environment for working women combining data on higher education, labor-force participation, pay, child-care costs, maternity and paternity rights, business-school applications, and representation in senior jobs.

World Happiness Index
Turkey ranked 112 out of 146 countries, with a score of 4.744.

Current healthcare expenditure
4.62% of GDP (2020)

Average age of the population
31.6 yrs (2020)

Gender
At first glance, Turkey appears highly Europeanised, with women taking their place alongside men in the workplace. However, Turkish tradition differs from other European countries and Turkey remains a country where the bulk of activities are centred around men; men are the dominant gender with women taking secondary roles.

Cultural Curiosities
Due to its geographical position, Turkey’s culture is influenced by both Europe and the Middle East. As a result, its cultural norms are a real mix. The Turkish are very warm and friendly, so when it comes to business in Turkey, networking and trust are fundamental. 

Corruption perceptions Index
Turkey scored 36 out of 100, ranked 101 out 180 countries worldwide (2022).

CO2 emissions
4.9 metric tons per capita

Social statistics sources: WorldBank/UN/UNESCO/CEIC/IMF

The Data Factbook is a work in progress project. Our community is helping us to fill it up always with new and updated data. Your contribution is precious. If you want to help us, please write your advices at imminent@translated.com


Languages research


Languages and dialects spoken in Turkey

Legend

  • Turkish

  • Zazaki

  • Kurdish

  • Azeri

  • Arabic

  • Laz

  • Bulgarian

  • Abkhaz

  • Georgian

  • Aramaic

  • Dimili

  • Adyghe

  • Kabardian

  • Gagauz


The geographical distribution of languages that you will find in the maps published in this section is a work in progress. Our community is helping us to fill it up with always new and updated data. Your contribution is precious. If you want to help us, please write to imminent.factbook@translated.com


Photo credit: Engin Edeliouglu, Unsplash